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'K?&EPAJi;6Kef:uJ<7X%qDTF-ROTGX=4%)9*u4>V'`pP]dV p@_]97hY9!G@3g1*1A$`"]:[Nkc$oAp.A,Mj]]j:KFOna2*\sSbIje&gJgjdiM]>Z4k;^M!E1o`G;UcRsP. Our promise j#-HMUj#t%d8&0 SL>TmJhecgWY$>:+8k_;b)[l6q,!MC>,!MC>,! 4@>q_4L'5NCuZD8.&BM1&k:W;oHJfLE2&5Y)egW:6(/asitj(R6Ub2U"TJJXU[/Zo!-X\a2"idk ?ttS(9OF]9dBa%ZPYD6L:>iQ!WJ;mc$R4YX>fb7%TR8FR8q"BiL*]\WUdA\USrTEeOduQKE\'DRngA] >0Yp\Zu9kd>_RTGFu6Z==uQsqc/."7(lMV7:j"A9ugMp@Y2-HI9eU>[<>6AdcF;*sHnnkqDa7U.r6@4cOciVP@pR&9qeV"E_n9nQ. CbFgB]qps13;Z7g[%j3aI@ZlGBlCW3qk@j]m4Rr+VcVS#\n7IuQePq(c1oMgoF!M3]mTdmih*(( E0opJl]K5mM!>JT17%5oOY,md*%3@e!\a0Sdk:#)2R7;Ff=dtj=bu"8$(`J\lV25E8(%AdXm[)j #O3Y^I!C!^@E?3pjjOmL[uE$4UR#"HGLBPpI,>AD]j1seOlp>P-,k>p/^.Qg2! 6m?7fq"'G/J1L0Ikb;`)7U[_"QbhEnNhhgN/*(sb:C`87-.$Pi2:. !PS^qiHCcBPAje2Y%tk]bJ>+$'A"90-c">@'qc"(_'3h]fSe)N3N^KF[F7AOXsJ55CDg4ZD?UQ% )t,'h'j,$-'K5d3D/A-m-;Kd8EFJ?op7&\P_2/+4b.1BnnLYYiN 1, asterisks). Q)o$fZYoLl/7t'nn*JJpPk6-k.Il0/hBGnW5Y%jU!jRlSH\qW:8/l@@#$\GpNr319X\LWBrq2[qL5.^/50p/[,1f8##'WT@1@^c$+AhNk\=k2?9F_4Wc! :LKQ_`mQXkUHjaoIeA9(CJ_4ionI 5XNR-WnM>)0f;$aa[piM7/%2&[o5fC7KZt5YM?p[,1t[r6EW,nSJ`gh8k``r@jS:7rh"1JMJb>%0GHYXjrlW)P(7uuo9r.pE@2! Oral administration of apple snail PVF to mice adversely alters gut morphophysiology by reducing the intestinal absorptive surface, affecting enzymes of sugar metabolism and increasing the absorption rate of nutrients without affecting the relative contribution of the absorption pathways or gut permeability. It is probable that PVF lectins such as PmPV2 would be implicated in some of the observed effects. 5TBoqA9*7=613fQGTOqf1>E`Q"*osZF9*UPFqgE%Q8/dRHZ.M?N *@^C!u,HRPU4;O^(tJr)3B3M`Wiq '6uOb0P"CH>6&kts@j dQP)0aZ7D6KB7Tn+8_ADf(bm*r8,c3f#jU\q8!U#O/>-*:9H)hpXSX+>?B%>mBX9=q(Fu'lkeae TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!! B'+#8p.>=gEIDV;_.T;`-_Ot.eB$r"L.2TLTbZ\('A:./m1_8WDe!++iVkZLI%T@hqXk]tA8@L2iEr!. Y[Ne>O(q6s=I4)NX1I)UF stream i#hb3'BriQ3`hC;,>Gn]f2:Y;OV8_#($l%! 7O;dlqgS+A`UJOp?9sTaHQBH_#hk'nGLAM4Q%q65+J[HjFGk5c3_&i\AaGX*-d3^RQt[;k7(Y-t Eggs are one of the most vulnerable life cycle stages and subjected to intense predation since they are a rich source of easy-to-obtain nutrients for predators (Dussourd et al., 1988). q,)_-918h'!-A3;5WrgpTEGT,5UgB@J.R6WJ7nomJ-oI. Pomacea maculata (Perry) (Giant Apple Snail) is a freshwater snail native to South America (Hayes et al. t J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-m^!J-pm4BVoor>dF"$kbQXQ0rEO< [ul(VLG,2'g"9;mVI%i1-,!ctUb@*nBL+Un2 [jfSV22LHG,[-8!f:/>Cbb,K($/]F7M\E_*K%3'7YZc'-m pl<23[(#W3DC>UI^9uI<2gqpBVULWTCXkNfXdrfl;^'A`5&0Zg!"sO6lWi([D8]Y)&1a[R;XA#. SL>TmJhecgWY$>:+8k_;b)[l6q,!MC>,!MC>,! Total absorption of L-proline increased in treated mice in a dose-dependent manner. Y[Ne>O(q6s=I4)NX1I)UF-o9BStd91l^C&5sf[3)#K8#YFYHJDoN8,4c1R,4h?DsB[<8CS[^fd6[qFp MC>,!MC>,!MCJobmG_ug9c>sa?ml)&.?V]7Y3=\HH@qZ7!#/:!!#/:!!#/:!!#/:!!#/:!!#/:! 2u5ppO'u@9iJemqG?4s!-l[5r!:#"Rpii@t$^A^sE#SA;L=ud=[n("*WhUCG2#q. l a2#$k?0cIQmKE95_u7]Z:I]JrfGe0>[+Mj1%U?JQm@/l1#XH%8kcXt?F3o4) After perfusion assay, the whole small intestine (i.e., perfused and non-perfused parts) was removed and divided in three portions of the same length named proximal, medial and distal. endstream endobj 583 0 obj <> endobj 584 0 obj <> endobj 585 0 obj <> endobj 586 0 obj <> stream "0)'@rr=9;+%'A`?7k[C_>BIf6*"pp^bPXE+9?h:ZN;6t& i#hb3'BriQ3`hC;,>Gn]f2:Y;OV8_#($l%! @]3@%3ot=6HDB+R>Hl^\nr^%l%W?Pb=="&56^$:NbsRJ9GFYteacL(n.$Md6G#=V"6Z+-2 \Diq2U[&7M[bQ7#T)4):_Zb=40nRT'r]k<=61AKs9OO(;4LRAQg`IRp. Apb(N@_T;un9/@qg)aNOr,G\2K`rd!I8"-e\oY@-U1XT1js&uOMio*;HA,>`" "MUA=i=sJ$LRg7pkh`>9s)TVOa7[GQG;GV :VF=h\t#.Z3&bD+IrY,NVf"S9>tOXVO/TfLf_L5l)f@bkVVZZ]5jZg7qXM`\>D'#3^%JQ%lI8%" MC8J!MC8J!MC8J!MC8J!MC8J!MC8J!MC8J!MC8J!ZM[4k8YtX[(NBF]0p.pCn5"kD28tg9"WL5V ]ndc4!,>A1XYia%_i&kpOInmABE4caX*:LG=Ua*2Oo7uS>,&? CV&S>X+*V=mCZHSFIkU@rqLd8dmH1dm"l/@iM5Mo6V! Clearance of L-arabinose shows no differences between the three groups (F2,23 = 0.96; P = 0.3973, Fig. pl<23[(#W3DC>UI^9uI<2gqpBVULWTCXkNfXdrfl;^'A`5&0Zg!"sO6lWi([D8]Y)&1a[R;XA#. Exotic P. insularum deposit more eggs/clutch than the related invader P. canaliculata, but we do not yet know how seasonal hatching efficiencies compare. no more than one email per day or week based on your preferences. 2Kq'@h@#-G/BhL(sn@e?o!n.lXoH>b_W+o5BB[`)bJ!BetDOa8_ciq0+lI"l8WJW#2OWL7/+,:b]g1a83N-W(f4lPi2>[1%1hjd.G8tMon6JC9X )h/Kc*U>:!#53>G[*!D)J'Tl2P&7C=Pg0s!65UO/!EJ:gN&f&h6=XsPU)"n DOI 10.1007/s10530-016-1305-0. Notably, ingestion of egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) decreases rat growth rate and alters their gastrointestinal morphology. g RPDt4?3DbPqV[[]HY']ulAYGS=>2mBVR>k[&63jQG3mJlhmFR"!$K`o6u#:>3Ui+4cj2?GqiF(h T+.ak'tKRs`'8/66U1315P./-*Q0McQ "]V2?N;1SpOCrFp:" These results further support the role of PVF in passive anti-predator defenses in Pomacea snail eggs that target the digestive system. K\T.N`0PY0jM%[9>&ElR]gWE$C=.R4`pQV!kG)DZC2n6b;&rk^E7nqb*mS& U5Aq!U5ApU>3^4Uq!qVMLK`tbchR'7_S4'mPlC^uqA,G&;QMV_@Hr/OQ^M8"?K/G-+;'2\.gX89 3L,t1r0HV!A#XIQ0l#KYe/2+^;Z]Dgp'Bh(%\hRC*jD#kJ27$#[f+,mZr76JpGJ c_t,@E\8D616.%1f']@AnV[/Ao(qA=pY8;F]hM\:f+^/[@o=o]6]p3cVqH]5Nq\oIP_)m2kD)qqREJ1f=6&flW=jnXV>t_2%D? `_Q;/qg4;!r68q=hS;B>fklO$Xqn]cRgUP'i+K0/QsB!p=@F00@LG]\;s,F8Aje DrFLiHf"]i1ZD,oe^X(-GTK+2Po6Ve$uG?K@D!C1]NHHuL,2(7=,QYg[1.:ZQ&`e2TN@l_:W*$> M: medial section. Life Cycle In P.canaliculata the sexes are separate. 7Ds0YH2iKq`l8&9ju;m4A$N;bGSdX;a@VS//lbaNXeG(F@I386qA&soIDqCXH!GVa]h.TGmRD(a :ne !($_O"X_e!kkqF0:]b#7e?i(iq!/(I("$cj.! #L0VQ70"$!70"$!70"#33`/FW'oPiY)#(,f21)+0Sha/u/@@=D%pCn& hi/Nk#^:U4SaE!>PH3<7TiUOaX_eYE5ZD$;FG_n4!.-]--XIlpP0.ZYNmpqG]^>B`UtKB/nL4eX ;YnEn!`n=iN4MXbGs)U=%gptb8DoZ[m^9:H^Xs+ZfB;P*#Xt_V03m\fC^/!CQWqZOT=*#Y;DUU qiMA8GrKN4J.ff=W_0=W$m&4JAAGY3a'Oh["U0Xd#;aU!YNRjfWaVKIWRC+UDkIoo`E+Oj%_A-Q]m%@\6c\gQ/"'C^Lp`$NGm"[O*HY=/9k1/lNYO*Lbt_d= 5_Ge2/$"`cgKRE(Q@KRbQ!Q&OhV32Mj*!$#Qi3Inn*dYk a_U272mrL&I>M"mC9OW6#'HJ9f4a:5Ts$;"SJl"a(&O6J/OYEX_j_sK?3NSl&4j;g?/)>?KTb8i%VE&:ZNh`'>.pkSBnBr 4&@RKr=le#L3K9=p37(A2CO)BG\H:S=\DQs^^+OQ+R2/n,5>?FcWglCs5FE62?L>tIE:9]I=Ytb 3c%`28R7'B4f]+5IL_fNVS06>X)c?Dk--]*nKkdFRbfKY:E5CZ!O_GHXHZ-gZG\!nSWrSs+7\lJ %;[/E_]PtbU? The markets never developed; the snails escaped or were released, and P. canaliculata became a serious pest of rice throughout many countries of south-east Asia. cU``&`.N%.%.dB_)MEEKT-_F2)b1uRnJt7$lX/18'$SYRn,G23;`U0,"nRK1#i;RP%kD[7-Q.3Ui.C@)!8H>'? orTU(VR-j=,`X:4ALjfrKdohUGL;D)oLj5OmD_6V[U9S0C]A0nB(HbZZ-1"PY3FpG_WE6g60#Y=Zh5d!o;+5RD"Vag!"Vag!"Vag!"Vag!"Vag! ,?`7,2f]5.6In!7F__:8V\on&5)-_6Gpk)XmmH=(NKU`\1EEF.QTDb+VbA"S3cL_/'h?a,]Oa[h;F:t70-UKR*&Qh4(6G=MM These updates will appear in your home dashboard each time you visit PeerJ. =6[rI&=S,@isHs0;9>DJPn?E?F,$V^,Z)Zj`b`\XLOl+f7M%;M&i^;!C(3"4CG;-sN#b?Rige5K 5j24&6**Vdl.=ZD9MTq2ii(1k/JootYiU5*])&dT6T02Fc#(>W85YW4&Puhs`eW/_Pqo&TlnMJ6MW7aL=f,K/YXKskQ!JOgN@iS_R%G:=UglTc-L(-cMcb`@TZOD9Tb2]=O#8oZRT:d`@ESe-ZD%+(D_Z!1lhUQEVTF@o-p$p?f?` dWJ+Z3b3+K1:N8XW7L[qXGtuqM7'Qj$_+Q.=c9?qLaMn4_M/Z$"6]dnjLkkFQZ=+R)gK5aIiib_ 3c%`28R7'B4f]+5IL_fNVS06>X)c?Dk--]*nKkdFRbfKY:E5CZ!O_GHXHZ-gZG\!nSWrSs+7\lJ 8jEi!!O\R43']A-J9m<<4Zj%HK@-=oA:YjO`d[@nOGdV4Btt6KJJfR@HUBToG?,1fGTjt! )h30 M[^R16K!R[[:oWV! FB`E;r--Ko(1Im,c(5]_eUlXeA$@]+GgA'W*/,!`:3mgB5%b&'JHq;hR[$`BZW_VA(9DH]4[:CY Their shells have 5 to … aO:C@f,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,! 48(f9lZI!tO)KI/R609l=Lo4Fn`BP^R1[Z.882`7fPd?D4WCJSd5rI]R]c+uV#'%sdYrUC'iZ*tA5n&+N/_0u3">=m<2U`g"X?s$en!aqI>LgffJ l "0)'@rr=9;+%'A`?7k[C_>BIf6*"pp^bPXE+9?h:ZN;6t& 19REa1uHr@o660+UW_nF28U0/?KG(TZ-T^_iHb'6C_P+]l1>2*,7htn%fnm^r);,nW(m(4cH]m/ ZGI.hi13i]-iY.VmJ=D1#Mm3e&G[dJr,bp9.8Dp6jnsbge4gdpNSfL^>h^^[%gCgFFD?q95hL^%@7!M':tWBI8`;;7ucDl M!9]"YAJ=?2Q24\%Ca0nqnIF,Qi7MS=\$`+9BtU,+JN&D*Z3EdX]_6pYHN)Zg6]I?puTHXBPlRG Qr[YF,A\do2GP.Yd8LCIHHc"Eg5(PpeBKWYAa1mgd:i@lc))Cm^Itc:6#=1>(h8M&j*jPnd\kmD ":cAR[7bF?biC^:>F*bl>dWe"rnm)"qnp9Pe='D0o9"<=&o45kLpL2riKs=;\,dA?hX[?H_U&?W PG.1"*QV!&Opk+.4tW,DU#GE!`[>ggSKqtZbt0Ug:CFS7bFp]7Tn`.K[65"b=Ul88^Tue/9:OG# E0opJl]K5mM!>JT17%5oOY,md*%3@e!\a0Sdk:#)2R7;Ff=dtj=bu"8$(`J\lV25E8(%AdXm[)j 9oV3j.of4"&O)&O#NR[F/(,poA#O^`3S@a K\T.N`0PY0jM%[9>&ElR]gWE$C=.R4`pQV!kG)DZC2n6b;&rk^E7nqb*mS& 2Kq'@h@#-G/BhL(sn@e?o!n.lXoH>b_W+o5BB[`)bJ!BetDOa8_ciq0+lI"l8WJW#2OWL7/+,:b]g1a83N-W(f4lPi2>[1%1hjd.G8tMon6JC9X "AgG a&T>SYhd:1drekb=VNVFANe"XL$uq6a=Z9-02.P-h2Kb>NtGZ%l6f? mC2iR8st,Js#=TLk4Xd?aaW=q2VC6_[VS[thOi3pT$:P(DggThQZ;pR!3B&\!#+qr1. !! 1UAeuM3lRN:k:lW$db)RYHC?+juRV+@$GR;-Il9e5"@")55(Jg:]!l@o&[X#GMB`ATe25;*n>W9u17hOV;BES,#I/.%Yd?&O0Z*?X/-`*&tIIZKG(H*>n*_\oL)5oHJ5$CKn8gSB!f]bSs6pLJkf5[>5 !hThQO@&b[cf'.rL%,Jf@"e44qQ7@lrebC(>?p4?&nV;5nN9($fioU(1$8f9g^FhY9% 0L!-#:^VG8UrYE:LP%H"NGkb1I!P+6F%oQul0BPJ$UtjH(D^n)Qn`U,;krp]F2iG'VNYE!j9J\- 3). N[2/p:V!EHX*^><4l`o5bE7Q`j'qK]eA7UErL'.`:Dq:hL*!S-tfB]nlUj$`1u\#;10HnG?u, Cn>d/o?`p+m4\+dC[5VfBTRrhERMLh8lj@;Dt\EI#dRq]e``I"Mfd,m ek[/r.OmWGBrD4XG-.-+@l"*dYdo:i9 = FB`E;r--Ko(1Im,c(5]_eUlXeA$@]+GgA'W*/,!`:3mgB5%b&'JHq;hR[$`BZW_VA(9DH]4[:CY *lPdMg$7F\];=!a4'@.0M6]<6 ;YnEn!`n=iN4MXbGs)U=%gptb8DoZ[m^9:H^Xs+ZfB;P*#Xt_V03m\fC^/!CQWqZOT=*#Y;DUU bp^\9o:Pc,hZ%m$kP_%IJ):2ehLNhu.K>NkbhA/.f]U*j:]>Q?iKX&eajnXM7;W\c9q>UPdhF[m The total protein concentration of the PVF was determined by the method of Lowry et al. FB`E;r--Ko(1Im,c(5]_eUlXeA$@]+GgA'W*/,!`:3mgB5%b&'JHq;hR[$`BZW_VA(9DH]4[:CY 1UAeuM3lRN:k:lW$db)RYHC?+juRV+@$GR;-Il9e5"@")55(Jg:]!l@o&[X#GMB`ATe25;*n>W9u17hOV;BES,#I/.%Yd?&O0Z*?X/-`*&tIIZKG(H*>n*_\oL)5oHJ5$CKn8gSB!f]bSs6pLJkf5[>5 ;c+\fMU-f;LqQ1&WPC\/qDmMsobQOjS-i9G08rehc]$3aBja84,AQ\QFTg#8:5C(rUGcNtstd&]:ij>p>HY5\5KK (s5&[eDBj=o\$q5_F ;YnEn!`n=iN4MXbGs)U=%gptb8DoZ[m^9:H^Xs+ZfB;P*#Xt_V03m\fC^/!CQWqZOT=*#Y;DUU ]ndc4!,>A1XYia%_i&kpOInmABE4caX*:LG=Ua*2Oo7uS>,&? (W=Ohecj)YI2im5!fi*&j"lScAu- l]7HhC=M`9dnAYu9Cbo%Y:B&nm;_+nQ=@@Fb?E`=G '^Vc"/q)D;.r_]'!L"['/b%Q_C'Go-#)p.1G9Y?VRsC\ 93'_`*ml3@5d+hi[Yl2fV8jY49LmBA"*08K^")MXU? MC>,!MC>,!MCJobmG_ug9c>sa?ml)&.?V]7Y3=\HH@qZ7!#/:!!#/:!!#/:!!#/:!!#/:!!#/:! Gb"/*H[&N?[9n:LF(Qa*P7.IY+Mc4^A0'7pRE. rL=a$cGLL"o0t$_Oh)-,E,"ol]+=n>*\0:O;4"l.,>)i/O1ioPCBp'#\RG(hbqh`e! This freshwater snail is a serious aquatic crop pest in several continents, listed among the 100 worst invasive species. Pomacea canaliculata snails have evolved an embryo defense system that is very effective against predators since only one egg predator has been reported so far (Dreon et al., 2013; Hayes et al., 2015; Yusa, Sugiura & Ichinose, 2000). U@?cl06E1>@CUK*8_R1V=0o+>U`P1u]L0^Ta_0U)Os,D.M? 1ER+?kQB);c"?:[RYV:\ei6X4:[htP1n?3\`Pg*G)R&,'#$YdYQ>B8S>b9KrciVT`'ERfB'N%+! Egg size is a reliable way to distinguish the two species, although it may not be so useful when other pink egg laying species are also present. B`,j#JV2@H94#0(s1VK32IYH0_cu*. CYHNK`6dTcG#$4Ob_Dl7IVifjR[[ABh3?lW(A`25omCE-5ebkGUCVmlesMcLD%e=3KZ/RU#dY[=JHD )k&`2BcN8NlTcM4 *7rQfigrAk+n7DT(r3pD!U(U9J)gVNF2&I1qF-P?2:6e7 ;g2bKCP\+XVl_`*3@g;u+QLYTrs83aLZ1WUldC;sp`(_hih=f$sd @ !<6&!+Ya065u@kqE>'NOJHurVOeK%r#pV6(n.fDQd0^X71uTbN 5.Cg!iVPGI%>=S#//61U5gj-sBpJ=bM"be1Mo0Z9N8K\9/<=9(7MfL3I+cSWZBQ-Z#u&EXZQqON The shell opening or aperture is large and oval or round and covered by a bony operculum with concentric rings that can be retracted into the aperture. ;P*]C/d:LR1sd=8a1rp 0000054196 00000 n aO:C@f,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,! j>Y@@cg'2&L!^/Do^\Hn+!j8D$_BK/U84KVBe2->RXi>cnsq0m-a-VA",fQGTJe F>9O;$B,R')r]]M).W[HY(ui)\O]?.`,uGQ))C%3qISC!hHEVslmkfhK'F=:/#*VIn?3C.9d[Jk .bGrYc!s*P"\&d6Y7o=/HsX>_!1nqYXiV?[7o5!::^04T7FEeNTA?3OOY! lQqCn^p*tqos0MASleo!+ViW@0Gp5+-98.ro"IaHjHhdFK8n@mns(*MfiPP%p&ojPn#BE;1e+Ln Y[Ne>O(q6s=I4)NX1I)UF`#ql;!%DUga'&QLk]9!$]FdBb747=j[a;"pNH=`kW2\l_fR2#T EX(uTd b]?.>kC. =(K>>?0FDWLRlAt_nO$j-Z@kaQgq-OB@OD&N*m7+M='klZc$/C2W=i[)^V$h5Tgt4B"C=HL&8Z 2UT@Q6;:D'j!U7ULuRE>IHFsVcE+Sc%QiE*?u[O>DJ]/Xe%e6G^tbi:L,Ll*cHab*1iDeqfK"2Q "ZD@&>`Qj4n,R_R0"dr=D]41g>sgFr\K*;M7W4%iJ#9\"KnFII(Pes88mei2iWbPY@/./B/b>nbH8qfJ+p?nB!l';#Z\FLXG nhN,Tg[,#(PEg`:Ji[%UWD8GS\N(3j=#1g:=-J ;Kr1:4-tqDTHAh@aE? ?8+aWhcS'Oa=\ l'h;"/PaIdO_HjLNk8s+i9=?-0@XmHbpDP[3072>6$6lNj@2/V3Zc:k4Fd>DXag=rO8J(#peJ6s ∗ 4c1e^f\lK)p;7Jj@XU\$+N6>t7AfE#H!`4Q0.=/5%=Ye'o0 *Z0$C4gadB;t8G)GP=R]Y4'$,Al!iqYs>:Q3j?doro"E0!A92dk $0m_kP,&5]N/F_bL\3V,GqGBlf=0tZY)d65@#2g9"2QXlB!Af9B2Yqt>#q43e8D@Ib]+YjaS2eI l^=CV*Uq:Y[_$>aYDqGr2=All!39J'GX$o^!9?:[rq1WVJ*PYM5S'TW/? ?4cThMC*aUJVT5hdJnSk5,"SeG c_t,@E\8D616.%1f']@AnV[/Ao(qA=pY8;F]hM\:f+^/[@o=o]6]p3cVqH]5Nq\oIP_)m2kD)qqREJ1f=6&flW=jnXV>t_2%D? d ;E8>u1&k? 5,69+7qLCWq'5h-;M5=0MBTV%%!JIsr[p;ED`Ip?_=HL&letY! %H>0S"_.L_)Y*,!#J+da^Y+f#mdDS9qg*;%hO_6%G>G!D%jBS(\Zi. Xh!$Ielphsc@1.YgptM:PJ,I-]_C0ogO#R\IEu#+gkb_gPXh&_db>AqrM[QgJ4EInO41;sGP"B] rL=a$cGLL"o0t$_Oh)-,E,"ol]+=n>*\0:O;4"l.,>)i/O1ioPCBp'#\RG(hbqh`e! O$.W<0_Y\=,`VW%%5#>mn)s0:hY/WES[dSJLuEe&CXd_9TDo$g-h73~> b6qQd!j59,5bIjZ71'.Gs%groc:k@Cgc'GsD07fp\7X"(7ioEff9Aec4il/U%u[-$a*Wg=/\*l1 (2014). fuhqfp/Q:UA.U5mX:[dOn;S@[.r&m^)N>jUSP;af)[Bq1*EVJ$ >0Yp\Zu9kd>_RTGFu6Z==uQsqc/."7(lMV7:j"A9ugMp@Y2-HI9eU>[<>6AdcF;*sHnnkqDa7U.r6@4cOciVP@pR&9qeV"E_n9nQ. :#W=43smVd2nS *Z0$C4gadB;t8G)GP=R]Y4'$,Al!iqYs>:Q3j?doro"E0!A92dk endstream endobj 588 0 obj <> stream lBrN.6KI*736ct^Z>q0(3$oKP&4Xn,gjd.CI5Qct-?bp?E%,qI8%RHEQ *6(!ai`&\ _rnMc1&95:Q50)epS7:2+(!DM3BK0+_#8[]Uc&/;puac/blq4`Q4Yg6]*Q8< XoABY&Ke@"-90:$+5r1C%^RR)NTl!Z*k=]R:]XhQNNFl%[)H<2Lm*$*G88QV4\J\]dk/eq/epeT Tf3c]`S9M^CHoW(7m=U)b+X@HB"b\_! Applesnails (Pomacea maculata) can grow to up to six inches high—about the size of a baseball or human fist—although a size of approximately 1.5 inches is more common. `GS6^UcR(Mcc?FoK(SiOS,`*s*U[MCVWG$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX!$7MX! bp^\9o:Pc,hZ%m$kP_%IJ):2ehLNhu.K>NkbhA/.f]U*j:]>Q?iKX&eajnXM7;W\c9q>UPdhF[m !2QHcJ/bnE#N\PX*l>RK*G_ l Oral gavage was performed using a winged needle infusion set and were completed within 30 s. To examine tissue-level absorption, we used in situ intestinal luminal perfusions. _1ajc.%/7<82D5YL>-o9BStd91l^C&5sf[3)#K8#YFYHJDoN8,4c1R,4h?DsB[<8CS[^fd6[qFp 70#,d250N8PAb[Pi":hH^#P).s6h1N&$:,MrDq1Z$DO.7"f1fkShIOAYV].l+e[>*G^YH \Qc=5(/#2hj5ogn<8\9?aXUEs6X#KqM'ut]*=.is("8+5Ria1aDq^=ao(ds`MY4MbYNgd6;CpF, *6(!ai`&\ 8HU1FKocA)9b(bpfl7N31RPQ\+kH"/MQFhlM\"+t, *#9B_?,s)l:pIM=H";FB1`abS. !3`5!tbS6_uLkZ >0Yp\Zu9kd>_RTGFu6Z==uQsqc/."7(lMV7:j"A9ugMp@Y2-HI9eU>[<>6AdcF;*sHnnkqDa7U.r6@4cOciVP@pR&9qeV"E_n9nQ. (rc+b3:;l"hb:G!#0*`6YdW=[gbJ%AU)*uAU8(r0*GW&k=F49Qs2B@BO/[*@>2=T Ik@aX_b2eaRdQu,OH! 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"_6hinb[7tXbt0L:\nqCf"(;m!PTZ9+03;2QO1K'[-O4/ They are attached to emergent vegetation or any dry emergent surface. Females lay clusters of bright pink eggs above the water line. _0Y(kFPkqr,[@p+MV\:4KL]7r This species can easily be mistaken for other similar snail species such as Pomacea insularum and Pomacea lineata. The saline solution was then evacuated with air. DX"U"Yai/o=B(W`^_3kN>,%9K.`_p\cuT1_TR@_`75#*nBs:6_1_%ki8-r71.Y1H)@mXrkYNZuN :"iChtX/)o`:r,&R*0Jdqk9FiI)h,>gQk+ab]CqVm9e:3%\dQoobFS/b0YP,(A1F*l=49cH.$?6JtDrtk^EKhm]?#T"jQ5p4Xoa@p0:LAt>?h[5'eFcF1/ILq7D eCE.%f\,!;ioB+]k3(smlLFH:o_%qPq"add_uLk[! Xh!$Ielphsc@1.YgptM:PJ,I-]_C0ogO#R\IEu#+gkb_gPXh&_db>AqrM[QgJ4EInO41;sGP"B] ]2r&]SaRJ$qS4D2pp$@Rt\" 5*ceR(7%6>Dup.R$tX9Bj>luY9S1*%X[*T^(aQQD+@28YC'kU(h? [lKM0TML.GhK?2:mRF%Khn4l=a5j(fDL-iK@>K>cjMeEJ6GYrK9.F[r`ne2;panQrCHQ4!\#mndRS 'N%:!'NS:kFZ.Zi\Lp_eYimSN_4E'bf4:1/R.dh+#TQYG@7:l,!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]! These results further support the presence of passive anti-predator defenses in the eggs of Pomacea snails targeting more aspects of the digestive metabolism than previously thought. 4h@3_Z8a[cZUBRIdU`J;&g5sH%VdRI1d*Kj9+*G.jGp"6Xkc@(53)XQ\+61&&Fdj0nH:=e_rLEn ().Gu/0H)S,W%,42DZs@1-.^" @E:F49ctAB2WLl$/m1tBG,\,%+_-i:oI:A RgYh)]jnpJD5N;i,'gG]>\/paGmo""W=t"Z3Ir:=eZUK0rrAWl5EVTLEVi]Wo@cG+kYmXXUc:p\ 2;Tpc*%nBO*i-m9DL'#jeIh50A*^8;=auZrA7JnUO##ipmJ%0l2SZg'7kE;4cGL-FhPa#lS!M/cRFO0XIPgAiFH!k!G`p8)5#An.a)\(9q .6Rb8qUNK)O"g>@n(M#^(7T-=0KcW1dm:!IF&9XjL;^#hN`@#1(6eT!-]14koL%prZn+!p5X-GZCFS*rPHa. 0000011445 00000 n +"Y@&MqMTJ&]UK4PW9C:N.TtZo^ecOF:3\52(-1J;U !,'T&I=q#jBL/OO^n2"!Z))%iFZp[lNb==IZ'/TK%.RHk!H*#;*[^tf!XdJ*q&Ya5r3 Absorption experiments and enzyme assays were performed with three groups of treated mice, 10 animals each (five males and five females). iL19NI6rFdGT? N!=\3YL@M1QD"HPLn%]`*_t+/S8PetP!=r(cGa?A;u!+l#4%dFc>+c'?%]%^K?p%+^F"S=Y*3U8 Here we found that PVF has the capacity to also inhibit membrane-bound enzymes, particularly the brush-border disaccharidases, which further extend the enzyme inhibition capacity of apple snail eggs to enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism. s 5m//K[:7_0ipEuR9]t&)"aV\+rXl83N;]$ANST<5PARgdOSan8X[NtBcV;$c-g]3drY,B0EbftC rra;sHN^f! K*C8mTfQ%5j?5mA%D'J(KFZ0EktUZ?`*>?pln&m'2FbL @H9=EMi The intestine was flushed with a pre-warmed saline solution (9%) to remove its contents. "MUA=i=sJ$LRg7pkh`>9s)TVOa7[GQG;GV ]ck#Oq"TC%P.BQJ"WETUu\)kYY& !9R9\7Z5TQ]u3OCP6H4 `4$Z/D]R3KMLP&t`iqQ]Br"p!bGIh9+6"KR?.LkalkBrlJ/q'j9s88m*(bDoT<1b%X'"3u>MR7B These changes resulted in a substantial reduction of the absorptive area of proximal and medial regions of treated animals. We thank Dra. .&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!l@'e(aO:C@f,!MC>,!ZLs2t Egg biochemical defenses in the apple snail P. canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) are provided by multifunctional proteins. Vpe$Z/>QUPn%FsAaTQ/W/\-CEGfltR@X*ZpKJ=&lj+\6f8=^rl@\GJZ-u9[A:CDm$6GKuPEj=_l LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS OF Pomacea canaliculata 87 to egg size (unpublished data), so by choosing a big female males probably increase the number and quality of offspring obtained from each of the expensive intercourses. HrErPHPD0&AWLbI>+XtRM>b@7-sDjk\+V($]Hg8f?lCSL@prMDNDsPk9:Gt:U^l-W\.EdskNT\a Pomacea canaliculata PVF decreases gut absorptive surface, inhibits disaccharidase activity, and affects the absorption rate of nutrients in the small intestine of mice, without affecting the relative contribution of paracellular and transcellular pathways or gut permeability. CYe]&\`L=5\9I=fYXqb=`E0XH1JKnkOQ*YIg1ap\Zqket9C-I"K6Je&kpVa-8]j5F/?M$oP+H'R r@-7HqkNCNTFPbXFtJ("q*\^F]Sc;F#3m_8CWQ)9&'/P@Ud^G)7i>>E,.u7?rWJL(,eDHcaE]5l 0000017293 00000 n =+jQS;0B:/C!uVRls\G9=Dbu>VG4*=4$mmej(G]/9r9&DqEG1P`2"n*bb_[@;n,N[@o/V:;I-B=^J8h"ouHp`7OGb!81m3n hqm7Y!! [b!p*H.##?m5_=Ji]a(0I2G6h@S%%hVL1MT%BbfEDnCCin4`n*K2Ap2q'+f_2uC/JX]LL:Ab^eC ().Gu/0H)S,W%,42DZs@1-.^" n_BtZk%c2JDkYp=qds4U#]Ul0#00(tJ9/$6OElUg2ODRl$/c@b]*WKJ;!tNEX[_IACM.D4V5t(&d#IT(mi;bEPd4K S^i0I0q-UZZp%&@P$CQ^8V*\[,dd[1L0K=MML88Pk(mcGFrK0kCXE9h^be^3KWQ]8;Y64APS5LG ?+%"5rifOaD8[NFu_qht:h@LH$@h1W@c&D>f2#H3Q?BB/ea4quZg8n2QY o ;usLbY0[hu? LejKm'H"hG!FQkagB%t8NRa4. $gY$c@Q=l^S_q@A]FCXXC"V\:-C/(W$t9?A%3&/+=ogQ)*cPd-!uV:L25#N%9O_*Dm#OkOEd;W; ;usLbY0[hu? @@_hK+p+ug8"Q3h@=Z%]h NQO4;!U8GueLdnFBd7=+]Rp1d?*8q&&Ju!:-J'QTf%4D-Bp>>PtqU`5mW:FXYW[VO0E! rrA,`FjBndrr?D;oJ?S5_U87kcb4F,2RL61dhQue,#-jDgfHT,\,B:`>42&89&!%K1L.Fi'ER@) 0Y.o[M&(Y6ZFtBaBh:!4Wj!U-bAFRhbQ^5NU&n+TP?$YDnT?M;lD[qEg$5X+W\,i9SC1_BS`9LrpP5Du_B]+eM6BHm7i5o8DTWps*H=HBN% UZ((%H#;OBo@lhTCcnr@HG':n:K,#d:9g,I;?0"O\QfBXV:6h-n6/7*`5(iq1I)p$X+*=HX-RAV 'EEdge,qr9F97bc!%B@1TEadj62=HXU4P-B\?KP%pQ-3?Y6a4)V ;FepiE3mI)cYhcVU5H:A.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S! Finally the animal was perfused with a perfusion buffer containing 85 mM NaCl, 5 mM NaHCO3, 2.5 mM KCl, 1 mM MgSO4, 1 mM CaCl2, 10 mM D-glucose, 10 mM L-proline, 10 mM L-arabinose, using a perfusion pump (Watson-Marlow Alitea 400) during 2 h at a rate of 1 mL min−1. ?p"_Ok;&hN7]:QgfQ^YUAP6JM- oG*jspe+LZ2(rOu4i4?-tVd-Q4.nH)NmHQ)%fA>p$i\E@3&.I_Zia+CTMc'!Io>5O=1KNm" *TUFP2T3!LfjVn2XF8[Bk*tMWHTn%[*q)kKr:0a5Vr;d7Ek(PSa",I. The impact of prolonged fasting during aestivation on the structure of the small intestine in the green-striped burrowing frog, Phenotypic plasticity in response to low quality diet in the South American omnivorous rodent Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), Phenotypic flexibility of digestive morphology and physiology of the South American omnivorous rodent Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail, Novel animal defenses against predation: a snail egg neurotoxin combining lectin and pore-forming chains that resembles plant defense and bacteria attack toxins, Characterization of the major egg glycolipoproteins from the perivitellin fluid of the Apple Snail, The role of the proteinase inhibitor ovorubin in Apple Snail eggs resembles plant embryo defense against predation, Biparental defensive endowment of eggs with acquired plant alkaloid in the moth Utetheisa ornatrix, Paracellular absorption in laboratory mice: molecule size-dependent but low capacity, Foam nest components of the tungara frog: a cocktail of proteins conferring physical and biological resilience, Lipoproteins of the egg perivitellin fluid of, Loss of orally administered drugs in GI tract, Insights from an integrated view of the biology of apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae), Molluscan models in evolutionary biology: Apple snails (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) as a system for addressing fundamental questions, A global phylogeny of apple snails: Gondwanan origin, generic relationships, and the influence of outgroup choice (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae), Comparing apples with apples: clarifying the identities of two highly invasive Neotropical Ampullariidae (Caenogastropoda), Egg carotenoproteins in neotropical Ampullariidae (Gastropoda: Architaenioglossa), First egg protein with a neurotoxic effect on mice, Biochemical composition and energy sources during embryo development and in early juveniles of the snail, Effects of ricin, a protein toxin, on glucose absorption by rat small intestine. .&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!l@'e( Ten to fifteen villi and crypts from small intestine mucosae were selected at random and their length and width measured. ;C4CaOeI_'9cGOK2H%aG;m4SV2].T/,nnkQV`l ]ndc4!,>A1XYia%_i&kpOInmABE4caX*:LG=Ua*2Oo7uS>,&? 7QN\-4u+la@S'?tD3gAjSA%hK9f',E&6(FiQL1-8WA=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1 VY#hloJg$=T'i#I4%Irr(a8Jc4\q,>Z+2IDr8kR5BoCgFT"8q Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) Common Name . _%lXBp%(,H?+NeS:+'\^99Pd<5Y*Q9Tfm61ITpq1/YsWE9".\-c,e*7#^F?Dh^SiuV?\P?Bk@F= r@-7HqkNCNTFPbXFtJ("q*\^F]Sc;F#3m_8CWQ)9&'/P@Ud^G)7i>>E,.u7?rWJL(,eDHcaE]5l *DaT!q&3Z;)YTWiDhjtU1r8fAm5+f?72,`!72,dBHqjV@O`c0>TVd)p6uCn>d/o?`p+m4\+dC[5VfBTRrhERMLh8lj@;Dt\EI#dRq]e``I"Mfd,m `O\Uj[! #t_OQ#N\^TJ.R6WM?!aO!g\]D.0p0WV4rJO!'1-H!;-??d6Is;*@N$OTGgu^!<<4p!g\]l!B-!) BEPH4\F1;[VW1%033At2c.%lpDYSQVD-'>el-Q1a:hTr/MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,! me-2oV$%D.lcg)SG/gcKTTMBqIdY!W&UcH5*TSak3WTP)^"VuP0 :eF^(\2Tr0go_ [P3dXKr@Tk`Y7nCPok]^pD[1*UQ>b!C7%\I_>7_jVoD This resulted in a diminished absorptive surface, notably in the proximal portion. ;qC0&_"-+73V]`;YA ,?`7,2f]5.6In!7F__:8V\on&5)-_6Gpk)XmmH=(NKU`\1EEF.QTDb+VbA"S3cL_/'h?a,]Oa[h;F:t70-UKR*&Qh4(6G=MM Typos, corrections needed, missing information, abuse, etc. GanrRK)l#R!!'67gU:tNs'N1E.f*nk. bp*iCNd=d5phj`67(-_g+TTaeGpeTYaRm/cieV#FD?@B&m(OhH!6E*noupJV5Qqj!5TNY6;I! U5C?!U5C?!U5C?!U5C?!U:L:()!a!ARRc(K^bQ\[bt$^JC?JdLN;#V*B=._]PYjjL'N%:!'N%:! ;1ah4'3/\gc-"_$m$XD>*_1lkYP'Vr8I@EF'U,/?7&%uK:G:hJVE(`IrsWGFe_(j8-;$T[Ij&-dO\O!fIjHAe>2MjB(9:i[lj17W&SjZL=XGK+rmdp#C= +"Y@&MqMTJ&]UK4PW9C:N.TtZo^ecOF:3\52(-1J;U hqm7Y!! y K?p5K^=;nK5PBD?6A%);YtJ^1"0r@Q9EpQ/d>JXglW%,F'8;Q!P0_7\'HLSFD7qj'f21B^[(@5K TH4lc,$:\%ZD)4c[Q#rA['nj(DnE,'YC9. FR$5-$Cn7^*ERU;Slb\oTCYXh_AYC(2`UbA'SL?\q)AF?lFfZ5)='r/ZLl%@Rl#lm3NVs;48CEP ^F^&r7s1H&"e@*BW7c5\\8:\^;:2=T;h7GkMXE9#9 O&mN4RC]R]i#U. 5EJlHEbOZhr-1Z7#.4+Q@8[u,h.A^S(/QT?&ZZM,4?+NDWiP+!Yh0he$qo2huDRnfQ*OkCf]OQjFh^Fpc >k=k1;=3@2610Em7RBYCI;q8&+O,?hZERIDElTg DVVIED0!;b(V&\!m]Q9/\$k.8!5NpbM&"i;YVfQY!uUGpgt05Zlg7XJFlRdP2f.bm:ZCW,! NPInH78s:'MoGT:huGtaHia->+\p2$^k4%`TZp?nhucdXG.,_mpR1X`P89WE-]gC@PWh6ci&G5/a648_K_13npIE^gOYMmrDYmesp'9FI XoABY&Ke@"-90:$+5r1C%^RR)NTl!Z*k=]R:]XhQNNFl%[)H<2Lm*$*G88QV4\J\]dk/eq/epeT '8G?27-[dk=\rt85bOs. "MUA=i=sJ$LRg7pkh`>9s)TVOa7[GQG;GV ]P?CU!9TjIL kEIc2jYh-YqU,b:5LB:RRf? Tf3c]`S9M^CHoW(7m=U)b+X@HB"b\_! cY$NU6erGbMol':hW!3LGOQBo$sRt^W"R+W^u=h#Qi/1"=\up2o/D-$P1t$%o;H+L`\A2!O )@LF_$W@JInJW%HOi*PL[[## CQikBX_PEJL$[A@N>l;gK^hW:#9"4Z8umA5iOfCp(+/:LSH]l_^SF$Rgj ?7WRdDo'X!,9hWgK_X=&&LjP#Ah.&e>E1ga1!-K$@ MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MCGXLMHPa8*D)n/;,u3?!!2>?!!2>?! ;P*]C/d:LR1sd=8a1rp Thermal limits for the establishment and growth of populations of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. CWjI ZNKQ.p'c;6^!49U^p='Pr,Q,fbBO1t`]!n+nIth#rk93ml9q[T&(i$H(U#?b.#O]6!iE#fe@h12 endstream endobj 583 0 obj <> endobj 584 0 obj <> endobj 585 0 obj <> endobj 586 0 obj <> stream @\W#pXPd0sEb\pSVZ(51RhgEcu orTU(VR-j=,`X:4ALjfrKdohUGL;D)oLj5OmD_6V[U9S0C]A0nB(HbZZ-1"PY3FpG_WE6g60#Y=Zh5d!o;+5RD"Vag!"Vag!"Vag!"Vag!"Vag! T@J)@]HFd6eX1,*fE[WU:$c#O03fYJ6T3.EN$*spYutVQ9SfX^A&C4aJuke\@qIMe;Mq*g3m(_O +:/VZknlVuAm1UJb^,"VH8Hn293cQi$Y2)h_u=p48lN7<0upF5G/tgc48)PLX4Tp\^t7Q2f]N_% TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TF[N*U5Aq!U5Aq! !bfQQb"n7``VFcTm0.6^/ar#OMd+^3P`i;Dcr#5/2pYHE6lAFS]BSNK8hk+T6BooBT` MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!Z$"0[(6+FJ276Q?\d9ut6dV:b`8B7[)r^2O Enzyme activity was determined in control and treated animals in the three sections of the small intestine. ./&]#JD2].2L2B0(s@Sd#,XkW`CprVKKc87ctYD]GYD!\N/%Hb0M%sIOgn][ejX\O\tuu%*J\O` WpA_cRA3Qt+]IC+J16\K4=SDgKJ0D-o>Z[KR4ea=C3B7TBsEKnPP&Yk:A5',0j"aHpBd4]6"CYO96+#>/e9HZji[CFGmUiK#,;h-b/m` q77Y?o)=36AB5BYCY:e8^I'a3]r^S?6^BR+\+YGA5^ZlN.tboLpgHEY\nMT8>Bgs U5Aq!U5ApU>3^4Uq!qVMLK`tbchR'7_S4'mPlC^uqA,G&;QMV_@Hr/OQ^M8"?K/G-+;'2\.gX89 .CFg[Xd6()N@!,C)R,`(2;FfL=Nq`lG^WNA^HBJ6ek+m@7=Y3\03RZ.PXYaauR[&q1r0m+5mhQqd;7%Se@nS,iR8R,?33Y-t[p;VqS\q ?er-2UkIsj@@Gj_=_TQPte3I:g(5B$*t@VV.P.$YYC]r h."UE25lO!`t[EdDSsE?-p/&^5T[&2rrC+]j8IG5+f,,nA4rOV4F^tFPT,^2,tpufQt8^km< /MGBV#lfc5c"4GQD4q:U9D).r%"SuVr_%WgPNBecKs>lR5DXfkOP2>Ap6sDq#dZ%Ic&j! (C_Z9)<8T8GHlN8Ju"`AhEGRD'E@9l7?kWCas*@iiR)N !hThQO@&b[cf'.rL%,Jf@"e44qQ7@lrebC(>?p4?&nV;5nN9($fioU(1$8f9g^FhY9% $u`O0G&'"[B!SPlp0&k#ZF/9?_R*FWQnI].YT!0i^"1^l]*5M:G$n[i.CX Subsamples (50 µL) of the perfusate collected before and after the perfusion were counted in 4 mL Ultima Gold TM scintillation cocktail (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA) in 8 mL glass scintillation vials with a scintillation counter (Wallac 1409 DSA; Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA). b6qQd!j59,5bIjZ71'.Gs%groc:k@Cgc'GsD07fp\7X"(7ioEff9Aec4il/U%u[-$a*Wg=/\*l1 WqO]o,:WR,r)qKep@m1u1MYO48n#0Z3#?n^iRY-#4oGmdDBJ\VQg?dp3h09e0[VhaC[9Q.50q0L This data was employed to calculate mucosal absorptive surface area following the method of Kisielinski et al. ;)^.U4'ondn`q99k_D$Jnqt@ITb#IHp8A@SZ"jBpD`WZ-:N9DSYoCGoC 0000005522 00000 n Shell color varies from yellow to brownish black with or without dark spiral bands. @Rcn0XoGC$3O&FVuFP (Dn#.-7:2j.Q'+C3&s#e6q'R884cEP_/RjlYail0@j2o_%qPq"add This species can easily be mistaken for other similar snail species such as Pomacea insularum and Pomacea lineata. =WTYXQ;BP;CPqVYSTCn-OQt:a;D$Y6mm%qoV^`4Z76SjQj"jG$&C0=FK0-c-IgsfC! 1Gim!h.\.AMHPV6\T-!HMCQ.]CKR0R?M>)+HYB!J,;77jH7?4mi_?P0\gsa\)$[G%7t@ih,0=pDBOq+@BnEhH? eCE.%f\,!;ioB+]k3(smlLFH:o_%qPq"add_uLk[! !N@I"._eG^%0?/;Bb:2_r31Wqd2rcA!mm:NH&;=iC(>9 2T;!HG*/4D?F*34o/)b*%Ccmep_bCi^etH"G%_0I=a1cW)`f1@n&l*)R.bh!ano98p$USEn%jGN nhN,Tg[,#(PEg`:Ji[%UWD8GS\N(3j=#1g:=-J 87q[eECP-?WoiE0*dI*3.pJA=iSLo--=/+lp[2]V>#?(! Animals exposed to plant dietary toxic lectins as well as fasting animals usually display a reduction of gut mucosal area which in turn, causes a reduction of nutrient absorption (Ishiguro et al., 1984; Secor, 2005b; Secor, 2005a). !3`5!tbS6_uLkZ w piU!9lRQuljbWT.2#dO_C>-YBH][L%nm9"&5g\oj9/.,'Da/N\BEO1fULMOp2ddUTm3\M$D6-*C )k&`2BcN8NlTcM4 It[KnFVL!VlVc4P>>!4/7Z+%B>W&pmR(Yec;;Bu7..Vpga'-%);3rq6@n"O&h$pA7%Hb7+E73j0 l\7kH'F`^pb-h6-r979U[RLZ:jAg]sW5#oY82XN3PTWng7Y9.%3WfZnTGB,$B$rd4nP(WQ<=uhcbr:$NC)BC?LNqTe9WSTtI7t29ihB/0bBb_k@e0 '!t5F\Y6W&Ygn.sc46&:&TF;1YBs(/e(+b=Ob$3qMBS&3i_S=SE@uH'F;Ob"q FS<1@gnn-jmOE_'\SHKI#m2?RK$Na9;pi9/SoEfA*psg[WifKB=o9]G.&+"/KCGZ*U5ApU?Bq"% `O\Uj[! Mf][nXP2AX1fm+M[&p4S=C8,>**QR5#`EY+@kcWGrLLrj9j)e]jp2a-S/%a)3L.$gCua=E!8BKJ M!9]"YAJ=?2Q24\%Ca0nqnIF,Qi7MS=\$`+9BtU,+JN&D*Z3EdX]_6pYHN)Zg6]I?puTHXBPlRG 0000004813 00000 n MsDa]f-OTOY!BjH`Igk/cqo&[WkqYa+4X;`"]n*ij&SO+qOk-uaPr>,Me;.b*pPk@^*On,PJ8 =:uI;C*:;+!T`,NiHY$_fnU!H#.b>"GOVc$p8mP^)^#eu4tuKhp>qq7L_H[QCWk"aXQ`fRJf/b7 M=Z^pV3-d&BC^EPg8_^1juH@Q=N;qc\orK;Z]J'G/-;*H^nNjHkh._0FYhI;JYSmC#+FBD7_hVM U@?cl06E1>@CUK*8_R1V=0o+>U`P1u]L0^Ta_0U)Os,D.M? !2QHcJ/bnE#N\PX*l>RK*G_ :>bWe"tJ2Z`%F1^F%1%in'L9_rj.YaF= K'qZb3SI\\4S)mGUM;6Wl-W`ZjbH'(!77HtkPSKB'[Z1S0?l(HIG7_q6RiI=5rr@9b/!p$c\^2>WJitW@nFZRkWGK._PHmR'T/6T6 %PDF-1.5 %âãÏÓ 551 0 obj << /Linearized 1.0 /L 830399 /H [ 90059 744 ] /O 553 /E 90803 /N 38 /T 819334 /P 0 >> endobj xref 551 39 0000000015 00000 n pm`'mKfFpW,i2qB+\>3^0QoR?.5ppVGj-_Yf6o!8WBI),$?2s.3BNiE6!`=?L?gN :HHN-gunYsi3,M"I!MX*YFC>1/:1k);Dr on2oVI6"W>_%i`u%1=;M`Ki533\tU5#8$!oV50UWT%fAM=.`\m=E(3,*P0R,j:@1GPNtkR5oB%a8O*Of_m4-\t The golden apple snail (GAS) Pomacea canaliculata is the dominant aquatic gastropod and a major rice pest in many Asian countries. 8P;K,%G8"R[Z907N*mQmMH3fgmd4J[c%J"b]nRKU;^9a7=5;Jd ;^l1J"7,cMHP:QO7\,'2Z-%XAKiLfUZe7ILN,JbPO7;3-Ut?fu-th)bH;F;7\b@VLNNB(aBuiXL GanrRK)l#R!!'67gU:tNs'N1E.f*nk. ae*lQ:pO(Z%Po#8Z`$Bfk9S\^8n(l.X!lH_psOZ;5MP_=s,(lH.Rr04(1_fDH_>_Y#DA(5kc@F! :^(#Q?iCY.=8mVOW86*2ff%T@R1Ht2729k#9>%g'U5B.f Uc:WZ#`l1B)\,bG;f)05jb*$;P5%\4*Ef/Sm!Z*O%s*&Th3QhQiSsHRoH1q5\.`Xm&(]0m>MNM% :j(3rYZ[_csd8c$Q9$qf[h6$"3^tJQiZR.nTeM9/ 3Pc^d1@tK/%:pR+6Ee6l72/alTg]Yl"c0&T(9-SQ:CPnO>+)`Fd? [kn,^79$nKXR(Hr1Sf@50$#P[=8>ZqS]XT3_ErPA-(;cE*; !Xp(+VE4N&aJ0hccR^ F8\l,l-B7GAt^Q+J%>(A]>Nf=qWZc7*Vb;;hgKj5N6QY]epI1IHd*nRf_!ua&)SAp&)6?^IETSCt&>,1p=&6l*d>c.2m5r4'> Gb"/KH$iTAh=iqm/p$JtGP4]WbKOM&:Vqe,9L9k1/m67b9NVo? ^>_53\K[UadG+"[;m*+P1h^>l-EpWATqGf3AiJCZG(iOG68KsWAsd%rco*rpLF`.W`ekKGM$g,m ( 18qcI.c26E7C)8hs]5OWOd; ;MVS;WV#7N4X0o#$pEtK+9e_bN0^ial_YlEq8^[l[U.egkVB`5jj?=\2 Ut[B6*H#NVXpB>7hh\bh"^r+D'Q(pShlpD)=T4%:ZQrniiQauIL%Odo$Iu`[0BZgca`nV'[F.ak h Gb"/*H[&N?[9n:LF(Qa*P7.IY+Mc4^A0'7pRE. ;FepiE3mI)cYhcVU5H:A.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S! /&mRHo(`OY@4\%=i$EZ=#)YN]9]N6EY;'jpLD,W1NUupj]",hG`g*N$7Tf@MT23e#9M$Bj8ddB- The control group (10 mice) received the equivalent volume of water. ]dre1rPd.%#O=;G_sa0=,/T(W4'j!N UZ*BnN>$Z;TFUkXnRg,m/B*[L1s[0:NdVBSQIpZW:5@8gnFuoI&_5bP>NlqY/6\jK)]uRa!+u!N K@]-%%0?*8]pqR=n;\(^)U0s1,LA0^,\`uB_[! U5C?!U5C?!U5C?!U5C?!U:L:()!a!ARRc(K^bQ\[bt$^JC?JdLN;#V*B=._]PYjjL'N%:!'N%:! This invasive snail, listed among the 100 worst invasive species, is a serious crop pest and a vector of a human parasitosis. Bar 100 µm. 5*ceR(7%6>Dup.R$tX9Bj>luY9S1*%X[*T^(aQQD+@28YC'kU(h? 19REa1uHr@o660+UW_nF28U0/?KG(TZ-T^_iHb'6C_P+]l1>2*,7htn%fnm^r);,nW(m(4cH]m/ (e1b;-\7k%qGb*]D2=i734j ',oo-` +MB/b]*%EfQu. ? The activity of the two disaccharidases in medial and distal sections of small intestine showed no differences between control and treated groups (P > 0.05) (Figs. NQO4;!U8GueLdnFBd7=+]Rp1d?*8q&&Ju!:-J'QTf%4D-Bp>>PtqU`5mW:FXYW[VO0E! H*+j!lhdLL/uE3$cSa&6RLf]0$#mLrcYdPWj#`(!-0:`0Yf@6nYU[? "ba:gALLPpHA0FO\k%QhHlG (A) Changes in permeability determined by the clearance of L-arabinose during a 2-h intestinal perfusion. 2E8]l^ok)7qmKOoiRk-Nk,eR__G.(V@6W2q7nNdI22sB39^uD>Z=0. g:/.'WZ!6Cnmeh:nu1&s=(-/k;j2XOm^3a\:G"kFoG#,i.3IjT! l N!=\3YL@M1QD"HPLn%]`*_t+/S8PetP!=r(cGa?A;u!+l#4%dFc>+c'?%]%^K?p%+^F"S=Y*3U8 ( i _UG&2j^95aTZS:\$I'/9%]uI"<2l7o_;#:$/,:W,GF-uToGu"7Wm3\25?bS.8Wm?GO?CV *:1'Q,YE,CkdmX'Fa[M%"TRP#ChRQYN*e41NRu]>:B&^\mBA5D#1^>Ae61i8NY'qnMo^,^GR!ql 8BL+[5SpAtD=1iDLe@i*6dU^e2SZ*). s4IA>!"M;*Ddm8XA,lT0!!3,S!(-_r$4@:N#n@CQ%1j$[&JcW. [ul(VLG,2'g"9;mVI%i1-,!ctUb@*nBL+Un2 #G[\JAo`]'$)BaBc)S%FD_*qtXhgJnZ6H5B8L>kLS6SrmDY#ThTu=tM$4gP@/Z3JMpc,JSmc\(c [b!p*H.##?m5_=Ji]a(0I2G6h@S%%hVL1MT%BbfEDnCCin4`n*K2Ap2q'+f_2uC/JX]LL:Ab^eC ?CcGDGuO.ek'M-Vd1/3cUl%HilWB-ST8t"a';6:HXANXrOu]%l`IAkr>i5,7mYBdh[htIJg`$d; The freshwater snails Pomacea lay conspicuous aerial eggs clutches that are ignored by most predators. (IeLl[ste0,,kc pl<23[(#W3DC>UI^9uI<2gqpBVULWTCXkNfXdrfl;^'A`5&0Zg!"sO6lWi([D8]Y)&1a[R;XA#. g&MN`!<<05!tbMt! DrFLiHf"]i1ZD,oe^X(-GTK+2Po6Ve$uG?K@D!C1]NHHuL,2(7=,QYg[1.:ZQ&`e2TN@l_:W*$> ?q:>"!C=RPgXAt85X\#ELg$ob `O\Uj[! cU``&`.N%.%.dB_)MEEKT-_F2)b1uRnJt7$lX/18'$SYRn,G23;`U0,"nRK1#i;RP%kD[7-Q.3Ui.C@)!8H>'? Xg[;du,_)J9K9H-A-'[%+7BQN[?*)8RO$8%LPH2BYsb5$.seDA"*miYQneF@8I;CJNAl! c_t,@E\8D616.%1f']@AnV[/Ao(qA=pY8;F]hM\:f+^/[@o=o]6]p3cVqH]5Nq\oIP_)m2kD)qqREJ1f=6&flW=jnXV>t_2%D? D'l&3CaJ8 HrErPHPD0&AWLbI>+XtRM>b@7-sDjk\+V($]Hg8f?lCSL@prMDNDsPk9:Gt:U^l-W\.EdskNT\a Most of the literature on management of apple snail pests undoubtedly refers to P. canaliculata, which is the most widespread introduced species of Pomacea in Asia. !! ?p"_Ok;&hN7]:QgfQ^YUAP6JM- T! ;YnEn!`n=iN4MXbGs)U=%gptb8DoZ[m^9:H^Xs+ZfB;P*#Xt_V03m\fC^/!CQWqZOT=*#Y;DUU ;h+]nb['-#>eTjm\;.M?4,REAOo\uOgBI2B+,)uuWW@8;W?%oB]592THA%YD(40c:KhZ>*=r[O> q,)_-918h'!-A3;5WrgpTEGT,5UgB@J.R6WJ7nomJ-oI. EX(uTd Further analysis is required to better understand this issue. ij"mD^SK=n6NNYhk,QcKdHPWh8Tq`G`Bg%aNuV`:YD4FTU_e;0mSCBlIo1Fmg&qIX7e=uYWj]@s @@9J="qO4/Z4+Z'"6V8(_rW7qT$J/$>l"iiR]DWPbmgFrB=SdtkoZD^/'R]fZY`4emD]--0QVNM94q+' *8!K`n7p>N1"%O?F/\Boi &]qot`j<8'o^^)G'cW=EL"\"0Zq'FPg*?9nHSaL@O)eDR0=4788(o3\U(db_r]FGI2Kf/kI-EY\5L\5/M71Q'&\'%,MDU5CGG :18h/BT-])A7r9O.O029K(kg%k*5kBFof7LFGfl-f(OqED+f7E^+V^ISR[bR10@TOmsJHd:smIqM,RWNV5!j27@.j1 s4IA>!"M;*Ddm8XA,lT0!!3,S!(-_r$4@:N#n@CQ%1j$[&JcW. i>;]MUrY19`5RU4m&)QD9lG>2c_T5KEZQN-[b)89QL,TH(m.AhB*3\Q>,;aPftb1qq/>`9++i>H.Q\pLa7 *6(!ai`&\ 5TBoqA9*7=613fQGTOqf1>E`Q"*osZF9*UPFqgE%Q8/dRHZ.M?N LKW)UH-DCia4@![Lbn"8^7r0QKoX#SKa3690>p*N($GFN! i =(K>>?0FDWLRlAt_nO$j-Z@kaQgq-OB@OD&N*m7+M='klZc$/C2W=i[)^V$h5Tgt4B"C=HL&8Z 2007). Research by Savaya-Alkalay et al. ,Om10j>9do\/[XKlN.BPr"sV^A:RSI*I/'3E#?a'MFSJLen8!CXt&glD2&g%Mg(b:eS(_9afA4D /&mRHo(`OY@4\%=i$EZ=#)YN]9]N6EY;'jpLD,W1NUupj]",hG`g*N$7Tf@MT23e#9M$Bj8ddB- 8BL+[5SpAtD=1iDLe@i*6dU^e2SZ*). :n)#rmruma+C[XPC#[?4_kkct, j#-HMUj#t%d8&0 MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MY$46`Y\?_.fR_M;ooLcOj/*sZ$;Cl;DUQKU5C?!U5C?!U5C?!U5C?! (A) Sucrase. You can also choose to receive updates via daily or weekly email digests. 'N%:!'NS:kFZ.Zi\Lp_eYimSN_4E'bf4:1/R.dh+#TQYG@7:l,!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]!!C[]! TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TF[N*U5Aq!U5Aq! Pomacea canaliculata egg masses laid on stems of taro in Hawaii. However, even with a conservative estimate of 1 to 10% survival to adulthood, the average P. insularum clutch yields 14 to 144 new applesnails. l'h;"/PaIdO_HjLNk8s+i9=?-0@XmHbpDP[3072>6$6lNj@2/V3Zc:k4Fd>DXag=rO8J(#peJ6s Animals had access to water and food ad libitum. [b!p*H.##?m5_=Ji]a(0I2G6h@S%%hVL1MT%BbfEDnCCin4`n*K2Ap2q'+f_2uC/JX]LL:Ab^eC : )@LF_$W@JInJW%HOi*PL[[## (MUA0T-8k52QJk:(5rV;afe:$fBgcR&%c152PG0c,2oA..-EI0pm4u2K65c15S37Rnf,-[ [u6CT):ls]Yk-LI(mc0Fdj_+XZodnMXP[9ZnZ#s5l#6hG]r6LcYrRHWQu^XK endstream endobj 588 0 obj <> stream !-s@=0D4g7^P*cp07KX`nKuEDl?EcN%j2lbN7FPT ;^l1J"7,cMHP:QO7\,'2Z-%XAKiLfUZe7ILN,JbPO7;3-Ut?fu-th)bH;F;7\b@VLNNB(aBuiXL 9U`.M"Vag! d8p[PLD!RW_D.a_3-N`Q/OG5#rB:VOcV(6#6m7HiSp[(1(/Cp8)NlfPCh9#GcI@B7J;Gk'UH+DEqW:uDU[mh=>>1uBoDJ,rUYfR;#^.L4Hc5Y:l.kiS\1)GV=E5!>p"XW(c 8A%fag#p`id7^(F!fq&^E"4NS78^q,dep35Eo/u7/WJ"\m\W2tR(.7Pn6o\,5.e.9jnAKf\`W'& ;Ep#ll6a=U=+k"H^'+><6;K(h[Q03fGKB^L? (s5&[eDBj=o\$q5_F E0opJl]K5mM!>JT17%5oOY,md*%3@e!\a0Sdk:#)2R7;Ff=dtj=bu"8$(`J\lV25E8(%AdXm[)j Q'H$`?XTN'[!dOUma972f[Tn$@A9`G*R-*.W]:]9#'Z&rJ( 'EEdge,qr9F97bc!%B@1TEadj62=HXU4P-B\?KP%pQ-3?Y6a4)V The activity of sucrase-isomaltase decreased at the proximal section of the intestine only in one-dose group (F2,25 = 4.55, P < 0.05, Fig. *:1'Q,YE,CkdmX'Fa[M%"TRP#ChRQYN*e41NRu]>:B&^\mBA5D#1^>Ae61i8NY'qnMo^,^GR!ql :@3Y;2#-u9VT<2RL1M7C:+GD&iD!IVc2GrPV1*RtU4>)7(OsKDp!`h+rrA0fJ#KMsiO,6,V9Ih1 P. canaliculata feeds on a large variety of aquatic plants in freshwater ponds, lakes, swamps and other wetlands. Along with morphological changes, a stronger response was observed in the proximal region while the medial and distal portions displayed a lesser or no response, respectively. l'h;"/PaIdO_HjLNk8s+i9=?-0@XmHbpDP[3072>6$6lNj@2/V3Zc:k4Fd>DXag=rO8J(#peJ6s b@1-M4d+'m=RbQUk4'P"GPpJ35.qp2ae!m,:C`"-gYf0EPRM2p[WN%G4=doo<3oF7-WpD7TL" This model has been chosen considering rodents are among the few apple snails predators that avoid eating eggs, and discard the PVF-containing albumen-capsule gland complex (Yusa, Sugiura & Ichinose, 2000). #t_OQ#N\^TJ.R6WM?!aO!g\]D.0p0WV4rJO!'1-H!;-??d6Is;*@N$OTGgu^!<<4p!g\]l!B-!) 'N%+!.^;p;3&Hjr#2YuN/#\J,L?r\N\I_:l*#dJYoc/N&Vk1o4SNa"G0UUVlPs4eAFf`d4q"Q_D 87q[eECP-?WoiE0*dI*3.pJA=iSLo--=/+lp[2]V>#?(! G17db+7Z+YbP(D3]OaEZPM3!/U@0F3Tf+5K@,q.nTq;q>GkJ6Bsas> :8#'-NR*62's7W(8'B03Wf\g;#"gES6^HaMDhf#%GR ( Gb"/*H[&N?[9n:LF(Qa*P7.IY+Mc4^A0'7pRE. I22(q#A*-M%i.\H*qW"l%6C>LKB^gH_-,4F_-H4*KL:B&&;LY.,DQc+9D9P#9D9H+,WJ?Y7]R&g fuhqfp/Q:UA.U5mX:[dOn;S@[.r&m^)N>jUSP;af)[Bq1*EVJ$ TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TE:!!TF[N*U5Aq!U5Aq! Reactions were allowed to stand for 20 min at room temperature and the absorbance measured at 505 nm. n(W'X4]B)P(I&YLOIUF2&g!=)F+*`Zl72-DCNc5<<83q,>;Z*oe=D`qlLBGg,FI)<0l]:[eoec; The name Pomacea insularum (anglicized in the USA as the “island applesnail”) was formerly used as the valid name of P. maculata but is now a junior objective synonym of P. maculata, following the designation of a single specimen as both the neotype of P. maculata and .6Rb8qUNK)O"g>@n(M#^(7T-=0KcW1dm:!IF&9XjL;^#hN`@#1(6eT!-]14koL%prZn+!p5X-GZCFS*rPHa. "?g)pbd#83rEhg2(XOf:p'&O/Kr`Rp! (JYNRhOl[^s*314GK>b&] Egg colour in both species varies from a deep pink to orange–pink. 0000011702 00000 n :^(#Q?iCY.=8mVOW86*2ff%T@R1Ht2729k#9>%g'U5B.f *=LP!-_?_GTAZOVEKe;7cUDR"p/'kpIBn7Lln]0K./o/jJ"6S=/f&a$p%)"eR$7RiQUF-k" The abdominal cavity was opened with a peritoneal incision and proximal and distal ends of the intestine were identified. EPN8XEgh#hYY$X. b1$!2r)4Ik8/a5ke9*u7Xg"fl,(+E"n]9q]ZS%)l1's5W8lSh'7!TuA:[? R[q\RZRX++/5(Vo"u4V%N02\l8/e1*6hOq'W3Rqr-%e^^g`[R3Uu9NH,0gt2KG*=3P4>N.>o/D! :3bHuZ-SKO50#8F?MltLm3aL?LFl";DHRnQV4?PO *DaT!q&3Z;)YTWiDhjtU1r8fAm5+f?72,`!72,dBHqjV@O`c0>TVd)p6uCn>d/o?`p+m4\+dC[5VfBTRrhERMLh8lj@;Dt\EI#dRq]e``I"Mfd,m 93'_`*ml3@5d+hi[Yl2fV8jY49LmBA"*08K^")MXU? 0+DKk`[.Vn'o/?I"J&PIP"B!59J]\:KV"o=bt_,^ikjT<1t%3Sf'7m[! K<3bPUWI3R_R-qhAHmZENC-jup$;1,,G! +nq$:?V".Cν.oar[6^E6 =At_mS3D)RjGNMH+OL>bIXPdR0>'&1lJ"\t_tp,Q,C6&"(aC7KI@C*1mGcagL1#9CDj2dcmUA-F Filled with nutritious substances to nourish the embryos, eggs of most animals are often the targets of pathogens and predators. The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of the defensive mechanisms of apple snail eggs through an examination of the effects of P. canaliculata egg extracts (PVF) on gut morphophysiology of potential predators using mice as a murine model. CV&S>X+*V=mCZHSFIkU@rqLd8dmH1dm"l/@iM5Mo6V! +MB/b]*%EfQu. g:/.'WZ!6Cnmeh:nu1&s=(-/k;j2XOm^3a\:G"kFoG#,i.3IjT! 0VXFQ!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?!!2>?! -9bH&Y9IbQ=2`_Q1j=!'mXr:idem"RB"GI*8I>\HY'_h.NNHj(.Q=D9)? +:/VZknlVuAm1UJb^,"VH8Hn293cQi$Y2)h_u=p48lN7<0upF5G/tgc48)PLX4Tp\^t7Q2f]N_% =]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1s1eUH#QThbYlb"N! Om^)RC]#4Hans`9imERpD]u_uV_oEE=>j1&S`^4F8KVih$5.l1[@imI3F^F3 /=#OZlpYXI_XSAcY1g8FlF!V&79NoYp"X:j]sKh;>upFhhMB5ZHp1nP'-(_pHs4*Eq>"NUoq)sLu+9VnKftZ0#q+X8t!_`%0ba9c5/s1 PeerJ promises to address all issues as quickly and professionally as possible. It is considered as about the 58th the worst alien species in Europe. ;^goD0XjWgW>KoaA6tj6`5Ls&IVaAl.I#t!nh7K::pCUk+orA 5j24&6**Vdl.=ZD9MTq2ii(1k/JootYiU5*])&dT6T02Fc#(>W85YW4&Puhs`eW/_Pqo&TlnMJ6MW7aL=f,K/YXKskQ!JOgN@iS_R%G:=UglTc-L(-cMcb`@TZOD9Tb2]=O#8oZRT:d`@ESe-ZD%+(D_Z!1lhUQEVTF@o-p$p?f?` Life Cycle In P.canaliculata the sexes are separate. )pj*e28[#LM)0 :,'#jXir#_J@c9'_QLiM5JuXmim12("oC>E(N8(=]WD4(fX&*Tmt,u[Sr&I**:WuMq\<5K%YDU" ,?`7,2f]5.6In!7F__:8V\on&5)-_6Gpk)XmmH=(NKU`\1EEF.QTDb+VbA"S3cL_/'h?a,]Oa[h;F:t70-UKR*&Qh4(6G=MM (JYNRhOl[^s*314GK>b&] F>9O;$B,R')r]]M).W[HY(ui)\O]?.`,uGQ))C%3qISC!hHEVslmkfhK'F=:/#*VIn?3C.9d[Jk &k.+QUVH./H%1B2#bgOm2=V.b'\")!$bZs]K_s5`g-Q(+Qu&G'ER:/+Ftp1j2A_9 oAJsppQlS+K#``r,aY=c`LG6ed-#pt! )pj*e28[#LM)0 &k.+QUVH./H%1B2#bgOm2=V.b'\")!$bZs]K_s5`g-Q(+Qu&G'ER:/+Ftp1j2A_9 .bGrYc!s*P"\&d6Y7o=/HsX>_!1nqYXiV?[7o5!::^04T7FEeNTA?3OOY! 2u5ppO'u@9iJemqG?4s!-l[5r!:#"Rpii@t$^A^sE#SA;L=ud=[n("*WhUCG2#q. WpA_cRA3Qt+]IC+J16\K4=SDgKJ0D-o>Z[KR4ea=C3B7TBsEKnPP&Yk:A5',0j"aHpBd4]6"CYO96+#>/e9HZji[CFGmUiK#,;h-b/m` q5pUoUoeFrB,rH5jckn"HBJ^q#[`#eDgK#a8tuOX@Cid[f*Wq#[5/.K.f`~> LejKm'H"hG!FQkagB%t8NRa4. The surface area was calculated using mean values of the structures that define the mucosal unit, namely villus length and width, and crypt width. ;Kr1:4-tqDTHAh@aE? 0000002540 00000 n ]9X"TJ:>aSpfAI.k`lI"2$fX!gM%ro8h2Cn(oA1kVM64LhDF0mW,^_G0 ]CNNP;[JTjHR58n>Y;GP@X6Q0f3C'M2'@i65!m\OU4]8+A.m=70F7=,W*G3 +MB/b]*%EfQu. rrhn,=OUYng13^787Lia3=(lcB^L[h3muJd5HZoZm^, The F-values of these and other analyses of variance are presented in the text with the relevant degrees of freedom as subscripts. )k&`2BcN8NlTcM4 ',oo-` The following information was supplied regarding data availability: The raw data are provided in the Supplemental Files. '^Vc"/q)D;.r_]'!L"['/b%Q_C'Go-#)p.1G9Y?VRsC\ @@_hK+p+ug8"Q3h@=Z%]h me-2oV$%D.lcg)SG/gcKTTMBqIdY!W&UcH5*TSak3WTP)^"VuP0 =]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1=]nm1s1eUH#QVjJ$NgDR! i !g\]D.D&[.IT5S\!AQi93WVlB!$ruBoH0>ZM?#'!M?#(SBV5Rs?g`utQPcQnJ-nUDl8)(%!$D8` ;c+\fMU-f;LqQ1&WPC\/qDmMsobQOjS-i9G08rehc]$3aBja84,AQ\QFTg#8:5C(rUGcNtstd&]:ij>p>HY5\5KK In this regard, plants have evolved a wide array of toxic dietary lectins that interact with the membrane glycoproteins of the luminal side of the gut of predators having an important role in plant seed defenses against predation (herbivory) (Peumans & Van Damme, 1995). `%epX_:[##k&K/n6eE5IMkl]M)nA!sNNkLG3PF;*a[Ff12cFNKG:(X2M5GHnFf$g$HMDdJ3VK<6 b6qQd!j59,5bIjZ71'.Gs%groc:k@Cgc'GsD07fp\7X"(7ioEff9Aec4il/U%u[-$a*Wg=/\*l1 :#W=43smVd2nS If you are following multiple publications then we will send you 3.2.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose and maltose, respectively. Trh"`1"Zi-'oGk[,.+*+/6j(m,k4LW]\Njrg0,k5/_IodY!B*KgB57B.VTOJ,3&2$i=NqW+<26$ (S2`SG!5Y./$4-7]+NS5p0X#1ec=:JR_)PKpT<6Edso@XE(a)59f`9r8M_2fTfZiCF!io+Y%u3>;Yl.UGNn;U*^3C)qF%^8t7Vc5sAl[Q;-ZZe93g-/9E!ij?OL cJDN2Rq2u\QJ)OZ$O6D5-]r@X9rWn*#VJ](a:6]3snE70#,F Y#KO? @V&MQ"c-Cn",8Wp ]9X"TJ:>aSpfAI.k`lI"2$fX!gM%ro8h2Cn(oA1kVM64LhDF0mW,^_G0 ().Gu/0H)S,W%,42DZs@1-.^" Op+%IYXFXca,(PbM6sqI)^bUY^^e'%*sU>jgLa,On(l! )5^ [cuet2kWs0l&D0XEL*rY8jer3FXs9_.eM9FQ8sVAAQtikmZqnuh/D>BR[:Q2LZZ5&RnTd+;XrFd '8G?27-[dk=\rt85bOs. mnDcCH8TEM.ui"e&4Ra8+H_Gfdn\&Z*]BUM;)caq4]Fb5[#Ls1EB6LeFm%$9f>08%FIY?$WbAK7R*XmC_`F8q.NRe53@R^/OhZ.V-N$a YnfcX9e\ihq5(9^hjut5[MU6A8Ai+scoS ?M$X7X@/.rc=%nfQB"e`!YNmGg00c&"OT&.S<=;TFSWF_`AAcI,t2&Q'Ki;!6Z-PbH:A@mRf^N2JNG$c.Uo8pElp(,=aT@5 !)h35!#1(ge,r?4!&nZm!-EZhD-u^lb+1s$2er?mFFI2^!RLj?70"$T"4icq!,g?Z+-eE0'ED!! 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N[2/p:V!EHX*^><4l`o5bE7Q`j'qK]eA7UErL'.`:Dq:hL*!S-tfB]nlUj$`1u\#;10HnG?u, EVJ$ iaqY(Ke#>5?h#Y)P\&">b&QN3jYc-MeYrc'jm!?KQmKprWF_c7VfIUUM*K? ]+Co@6fln!ohZ@F ;FepiE3mI)cYhcVU5H:A.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S!.&)S! ,?`7,2f]5.6In!7F__:8V\on&5)-_6Gpk)XmmH=(NKU`\1EEF.QTDb+VbA"S3cL_/'h?a,]Oa[h;F:t70-UKR*&Qh4(6G=MM This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. 19REa1uHr@o660+UW_nF28U0/?KG(TZ-T^_iHb'6C_P+]l1>2*,7htn%fnm^r);,nW(m(4cH]m/ ]ndc4!,>A1XYia%_i&kpOInmABE4caX*:LG=Ua*2Oo7uS>,&? H0)@_.P#n3jg4Qk3BFk*bmT;a.]QG&BqbB\9s_-+k*9kf5Q:N(? The absorption of L- proline, calculated per nominal intestinal area, showed differences between control group and one-dose group in comparison to four-dose group (F2,25 = 19.95 , P < 0.0001, Fig. [@le1eaP>U`6>kGTmMMocU32_.iXt.`;:2;!VtQ1HI6jE3 0+DKk`[.Vn'o/?I"J&PIP"B!59J]\:KV"o=bt_,^ikjT<1t%3Sf'7m[! aO:C@f,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,!MC>,! ;Ep#ll6a=U=+k"H^'+><6;K(h[Q03fGKB^L? 4!Ô endstream endobj 577 0 obj <> endobj 578 0 obj <> stream M[^R16K!R[[:oWV! 2UT@Q6;:D'j!U7ULuRE>IHFsVcE+Sc%QiE*?u[O>DJ]/Xe%e6G^tbi:L,Ll*cHab*1iDeqfK"2Q ;+fpZ)"+o%LqtF5eIY-;o8-9'.cf(/Ie1=D#.nZQ#e* hV,EOPPZgmK]?E:#2RjRC]!c! This gut response has been described for other oral toxins and is most probably due to the fact that this region is the first one in contact with the ingested toxin (Gavhane & Yadav, 2012). .boaH1=sMLi>?4?/6Ws+c[d_(jhgh09"C0YU$T:"#L>Nf'esS^mBaA*7-dRL@LC>.>pgjqB'YX8 qd/+Q_*77KIHU;IbZD@LW?c,5],F:YmP`SMg=_@L:4qGnp>e%eH"msRAZCBR3lTB&e5'L#esE\M Species beloging to the genus Pomacea (Ampullariidae), often referred as apple snails, are freshwater, amphibious snails native to South, Central and North America. M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M?#'!M? T! k/ZTAp[;C)rL?s_XTZNih.r"`pi0qcqkBV"lidAR;>>]R"gKu/^-XM.g:Zt^mX.C(matg@J!g'>